Gerund

Definition: A gerund is the form of a verb when it acts as a noun; a gerund (often known as an -ing word) is a noun formed from a verb by adding -ing.

For example:

  • Studying is good for you.

Formation: Base Form + ING

Gerunds can act as the subject or object of a main verb.

For example:

  • Going to parties is fun.
  • Hunting elephants is dangerous.
  • Flying makes me nervous.

  • * Here, gerunds are subjects
  • I enjoy reading.
    * Here, gerund is object

Use
Certain words like adjectives, prepositions, verbs, nouns are followed by an Ing-Form.

Use after certain adjectives
Adjectives (with Prepositions) followed by the Gerund

afraid of
angry about / at
bad at
busy
clever at
interested in
proud of

crazy about
disappointed about
excited about
famous for
fond of
sorry about
worried about

For example:

  • Hes afraid of going by plane.
  • I am interested in visiting the museum.
  • He is clever at skateboarding.
  • The girl is crazy about playing tennis.
  • I'm worried about making mistakes.

Use after certain prepositions
Prepositions followed by the Gerund

about
after
apart from
because of
before

by
in
instead of
on
without

For example:

  • Before going to bed he turned off the lights.
  • She avoided him by walking on the opposite side of the road.
  • We arrived in Madrid after driving all night.
  • He told the joke without laughing.

Use after certain verbs
Verbs followed by the Gerund

admit
advise
allow
appreciate
avoid
suggest
understand
miss
reject

consider
delay
deny
dislike
enjoy
resist
imagine
permit
practise

For example:

  • I enjoy cooking.
  • He admitted having driven too fast.
  • Ralph is considering buying a new house.
  • I delayed telling Max the news.
  • They miss playing with their friends.

Use after certain nouns
Nouns with Prepositions followed by the Gerund

advantage of
alternative of
chance of
choice between
danger of
doubt about
experience in
fun
hope of
point in

idea of
interest in
opportunity of
pleasure in
problem
reason for
trouble in
use
waste of money
waste of time

For example:

  • We had problems finding our way back home.
  • There's no point in waiting any longer.
  • What is the advantage of farming over hunting?
  • He is in doubt about buying the correct software for his computer system.
  • There's a real reason for winning the contest.

Rules:

  • If a verb ends with -e, it loses the last letter before adding the -ing suffix.



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