- The dog
- A white house
Nouns also denote abstract and intangible concepts.
- technology, etc.
We are going to explain some rules that will help you to form the plural forms of the nouns. The general rule is to add "-s" to the noun in singular.
- Book - Books
- House - Houses
- Chair - Chairs
When the singular noun ends in: -sh, -ch, -s, -ss, -x, -o we form their plural form by adding "-es".
- sandwich - sandwiches
- brush - brushes
- bus - buses
- box - boxes
- potato - potatoes
When the singular noun ends in "y", we change the "y" for "i" and then add "-es" to form the plural form. But do not change the "y" for "ies" to form the plural when the singular noun ends in "y" preceded by a vowel.
- nappy - nappies
- day - days
- toy - toys
However, there are many Irregular Nouns which do not form the plural in this way:
- Woman - Women
- Child - Children
- Sheep - Sheep
Nouns may take an " 's " ("apostrophe s") or "Genitive marker" to indicate possession. If the noun already has an -s ending to mark the plural, then the genitive marker appears only as an apostrophe after the plural form.
- my girlfriend's brother
- John's house
- The Browns' house
- The boys' pens
The genitive marker should not be confused with the " 's " form of contracted verbs, as in John's a good student = John is a good student.
Many common nouns, like "engineer" or "teacher", can refer to men or women. Once, many English nouns would change form depending on their gender. For example: A man was called an "author" while a woman was called an "authoress".
- David Garrick was a very prominent eighteenth-century actor.
- Sarah Siddons was at the height of her career as an actress in the 1780s.
- The manager was trying to write a want ad, but he couldn't decide whether he was advertising for a "waiter" or a "waitress"
Types of Nouns
- Proper nouns are the names of specific things, people, or places, such as Jhon, France. They usually begin with a capital letter.
- Common nouns are general names such as person, mansion, and book. They can be either concrete or abstract.
- Concrete nouns refer to things which you can sense such as clock and telephone.
- Abstract nouns refer to ideas or qualities such as liberty and truth.
- Countable nouns refer to things which can be counted (can be singular or plural)
- Uncountable nouns refer to some groups of countable nouns, substances, feelings and types of activity (can only be singular)